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A Demonstration Manual for Use in the Waldorf School Eighth Grade Physics Main Lesson

Mikko Bojarsky

Comb bound


After working through acoustics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, hydraulics and aeromechanics becomes the centerpiece of Waldorf 8th grade science. Now we have a thorough, clear, and, yes, exciting demonstration manual that is equal to the task of keeping 8th grade students enthralled with these fascinating subjects. You’ll see from the Table of Contents, below, that once again Mikko Bojarsky has pulled out all the stops to gift anyone teaching 8th grade science with a resource they can really rely upon, whether in a classroom or homeschool setting.

Table of Contents:

  • Introduction
    • Equipment
    • Sources for Equipment
    • Pictures of Equipment
    • Safety
    • Rehearsing Demonstrations
  • Pressure
    • Pressure as the Ratio of Force to Surface Area
      • Part 1 – Square Rod and Block
      • Part 2 – Pressing with Fingers on Arm
    • Table of Representative Pressures
    • Determining the Pressure a Student Exerts on the Ground
    • Squirting Water from Syringes
    • Measuring the Pressure of a Car Tire
    • Measuring Blood Pressure
  • Water Pressure
    • Mariotte’s Bottle
    • Homemade Manometer
    • William Beebe and the Bathysphere
    • Water Seeks Its Own Level
      • Method 1 – Clamped Tubes
      • Method 2 – Single Piece of Tubing
    • Equilibrium Tubes
  • Archimedes’ Principle
      • Flotation
      • Part 1 – The Rising Bottle
      • Part 2 – Floating Objects
    • Archimedes’ Principle Demonstration
    • Simple Demonstration of Archimedes’ Principle
    • The Story of Archimedes and the Golden Crown
    • Floating Soda Cans
    • Floating and Sinking Aluminum Foil
    • Boat Contest
    • Floating Egg
    • Hydrometer
  • Pascal’s Principle
    • Biography of Pascal
    • Explanation of Pascal’s Principle
    • Pressure Syringe for Demonstrating Pascal’s Principle
      • Method 1 – Using a Commercial Device
      • Method 2 – Make Your Own Pressure Syringe
    • The Heimlich Maneuver
    • Examples of Pascal’s Principle in Action
    • Cartesian Diver
  • The Hydraulic Press
      • Hydraulic Balance
      • Part 1 – Equal Syringes, Equal Weights
      • Part 2 – Equal Syringes, Unequal Weights
    • Part 3 – Unequal Syringes, Equal Weights
    • Dueling Syringes
    • Hydraulic Press Model
    • Analysis of the Hydraulic Press
    • Hot Water Bottle Hydraulic Jack
    • Hydraulic Pistons
    • The Jaws of Life
    • Hydraulic Automobile Life
    • The Log Splitter
    • The Automobile Brake
  • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Air Has Weight
      • Method 1 – Using a Soccer or Other Inflatable Ball
      • Method 2 – Using Two Large Balloons
      • Method 3 – Using a Balloon and Precise Balance
    • Imploding Soda Can
    • Collapsing Square Can
    • Drinking Glass and Cardboard Square
    • Water in a Drinking Straw
    • Syringes and Vacuum Cleaners
    • Plumber’s Helpers
    • Bottles and Stopper
    • The Running Bottle
    • Egg and Florence Flask
    • Suction Cups
    • The Vacuum Pump
    • Magdeburg Hemispheres
    • How High a Column of Water Will the Atmosphere Support?
    • The Lift Pump
    • The Force Pump
    • Lift and Force Pump Models
    • The Centrifugal Pump
    • Hydraulic Ram
    • Hydraulic Ram Model
    • Siphons
  • Barometers
    • The Mercury Barometer
    • The Aneroid Barometer
    • Goethe Barometer
  • Bernoulli’s Principle
    • Clinking Light Bulbs
    • Rising Strip of Paper
    • Suspended Ping-Pong Ball
    • Atomizer
    • Bernoulli Bag
    • The Airplane Wing
    • Suggestions for the Study of Meteorology in Eighth Grade
  • Resources
    • Suggestions for Biographies
    • Books Useful for Teaching Hydraulics and Aeromechanics
    • Books Useful for Teaching Meteorology
  • Glossary
  • Message to Class Teachers

Mikko Bojarsky

Spiral bound


As excellent for eighth grade as his previous demonstration manual is for seventh grade, Mikko Bojarsky continues to enliven and enlighten chemistry in the upper grades. This book contains step-by-step instructions for over 60 simple, tested demonstrations; engaging experiments that awaken student interest in chemistry; an explanation in non-technical language for each demonstration; activities for students to do themselves; safety tips; many demonstrations found in no other chemistry manual.

An Overview of the Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Carbohydrates
  • Sugar
  • Starch
  • Cellulose
  • Proteins
  • Fats and Oils
  • Cosmetics
  • Concluding Demonstrations
  • Vitamins
  • Resources

An outstanding resource – recommended with unreserved enthusiasm!

Mikko Bojarsky

Spiral bound


This is the most practical, hands-on, sure-to-convey-the-lesson chemistry curriculum guide published within the Waldorf movement to date. Mikko Bojarsky isn’t just another science master teacher — he is also a master at teaching teachers what they need to know in order to teach their students effectively. The straightforward clarity of his presentation takes you right into a classroom filled with lively (and not always attentive) students and gives you everything you need to make the lesson come alive in their eyes (and grab the attention of those not always committed to study).

Although written for class teachers in a school setting, these lessons can be just as effective (and just as do-able) in a homeschool setting.

Bojarsky covers:

  • Introduction
  • Chemistry in the Seventh Grade
  • Presenting Demonstrations and Working with Chemicals includes safety, rehearsing, dangerous experiments, equipment, handling acids and bases, disclaimer, concentration of solutions, abbreviations
  • Combustion Includes suggestion for opening poems, burning materials, igniting a fire with magnesium firestarter, making a bonfire, kindling temperature, burning powdered metals, colored flames, water and alcohol, dramatic combustion of alcohol, fire needs air, exploding paint can, smoke bomb, exploding mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen
  • The Candle Includes: how it burns and why the wax doesn’t melt the candle rim and run over the sides; experiments with the flame; igniting the vapors; a jumping flame; making sooty flame; split candle flame; charcoal; sulfur and more
  • Water Includes the water cycle, water as solvent; water as catalyst; purifying salt; expanding as it freezes; evaporation and condensation; distillation
  • Salts and Crystal Formation Includes examining salts, crystals from table salt; precipitation of potassium sulfate crystals; epsom salts; silicate fairy garden; crystallization of sodium acetate; growing fluffy white crystals on charcoal; growing crystals from alum
  • Acids and Bases Includes tasting acids and bases; their properties; cabbage juice indicator; observing color changes; smoke is acidic; ash is basic; making bases directly
  • The Lime Cycle Includes preparing carbon dioxide and carbonic acid; calcium carbonate; the lime kiln; adding carbon dioxide to limewater; adding hydrochloric acid to marble; soaking an egg in vinegar; contrasting mineral water and limewater as acid and base; making insoluable bases
  • Making Salts Includes preparation of hydrochloric acid; sodium hydroxide; making sodium chloride; their reactions; neutralizing vinegar with milk of magnesia; making calcium chloride and ammonium chloride; splitting another salt into an acid and base
  • The Metals
  • Appendix 1: Where to obtain materials


A Demonstration Manual for Use in the Waldorf Seventh Grade Physics Lesson

Mikko Bojarsky and Antje Bojarsky



Here’s another rich lesson guide from Mikko Bojarsky – this time with the help of Antje Bojarsky as well. Anyone teaching Mechanics to middle school students will love (and feel extremely grateful for) the help this book offers. Students, on the other hand, will revel in the joys of a rich and interesting presentation of Mechanics. A beautifully win-win presentation!



Levers of the First Kind

  • The Seesaw
  • The Crowbar
  • Prying up a Paint Can with a Screwdriver
  • Desktop Levers of the First Kind
  • Moment of Force Mobile
  • Making Mobiles
  • The Law of the Lever of the First Kind Equation
  • Calculating the Mechanical Advantage of a Lever of the First Kind
  • The Invisible Effort
  • Weighing a Student Using a Seesaw
  • Determining the Weight of a Brick
  • Human Balance Beams

Levers of the Second Kind

  • Introducing Levers of the Second Kind
  • Human Wheelbarrows
  • Using a Plank to Lift Students
  • The Wheelbarrow as a Lever of the Second Kind

Levers of the Third Kind

  • Using a Broom as Lever of the Third Kind
  • Investigating Levers of the Third Kind
  • Opening a Door
  • Identifying Levers in Household Tools
  • Finding the Three Types of Levers in the Body
  • Lever Tasks


  • Using a Pulley to Create Mechanical Advantage
  • A Block and Tackle with a Mechanical Advantage of 4
  • Rigging Block and Tackles
  • Using Two Brooms to Make a Block and Tackle
  • Lifting Students with a Block and Tackle
  • The Trucker’s Hitch
  • Tasks to Accomplish with Pulleys and Levers

The Wheel and Axle

  • The Old Oaken Bucket
  • The Brace and Bit
  • Twisting a Broom Handle
  • A Corn Broom as Wheel and Axle
  • Tire Iron Wheel and Axle
  • Turning a Screw Eye
  • Comparing Screwdrivers with Different Sized Handles

The Inclined Plane

  • Introducing the Inclined Plane
  • Hauling a Car Up an Inclined Plane Using an Elastic Band
  • Hauling a Car Up an Inclined Plane Using a Spring Scale
  • Desktop Inclined Plane
  • Analysis of the Inclined Plane

The Wedge

  • Lifting Furniture with a Wedge
  • Separating Bricks with a Wedge
  • Pounding in Blunt and Pointed Nails
  • Splitting Logs with a Wedge

The Screw

  • Making Pencil Screws
  • Calculating the Mechanical Advantage of a Screw
  • The Jackscrew
  • Automobile Scissors Jack
  • Bolts and Springs
  • Comparing Nails and Screws
  • Putting the Thread on a Screw


  • Examining How Gears Work
  • Building Model Gears
  • Gear Ratios
  • 10-Speed Bicycle Gears
  • Counting Teeth on Gears
  • Building Transmisison Boxes
  • Student Activity: Simple Machines in the Classroom
  • Finding Simple Machines in Tools from Home
  • How Many Simple Machines Are There?
  • Compound Machines
  • Turning One Kind of Motion into Another

Sample Mechanics Practice and Quiz Sheets
Recommended Resources
Check Your Understanding Answers